The conference will analyze the composition of nationalities (who belonged to the national community?), the legitimizing function of nationalism, and its relation to acts of violence at the end of war and to the reshaping of postwar societies. At the same time, we want to address the differences between countries. How did a specific occupation policy in a specific place, with its specific national and racist criteria, influence the “responses” of the occupied society? Is there any evidence of a biological understanding of nationhood? How did competing concepts shape a new understanding of the “nation”—particularly taking into consideration the different political and cultural developments in various nation-states after the war ended? We are interested in papers that touch upon violent acts occurring at the end of World War II and stemming from nationalism as reshaped by previous war experiences.