Abstract: Final report and action plan from the European Commission expert group on FAIR data. To take advantage of the digital revolution, to accelerate research, to engage the power of machine analysis at scale while ensuring transparency, reproducibility and societal utility, data and other digital objects created by and used for research need to be FAIR. Advancing the global Open Science movement and the development of the European Open Science Cloud is the unambiguous objective for this report. This document is both a report and an action plan for turning FAIR into reality. It offers a survey and analysis of what is needed to implement FAIR and it provides a set of concrete recommendations and actions for stakeholders in Europe and beyond. It is our intention that it should provide a framework that will greatly assist the creation of the European Open Science Cloud, and will be applicable to other comparable initiatives globally.